HPVs are obligate human pathogens, some have the propensity to promote malignant transformations of their host cells. An example of this is HPV-16 in the oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, which is seen in about 50-70% of cases although there is geographical variation.
ADXS11-001 (formerly Lovaxin C) is a bioengineered strain of living Listeria monocytogenes that induces a strong therapeutic immune response using multiple mechanisms of action. This vaccine secretes the tumour antigen HPV-16 E7 fused to an attenuated Lm virulence factor, Listeriolysin O (LLO), which has strong adjuvant properties.
If proved safe, there is a role for ADXS11-001 as a post-treatment adjuvant as part of a treatment de-escalation strategy in an attempt to reduce the adverse effects of current treatment strategies without compromising survival. The REALISTIC trials' objective is to determine safety and to characterise the toxicity profile of ADXS11-001.